A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose , mountain goats and bighorn sheep.
There is a spring hunting season for black bear and in most years, limited hunting of bison that leave Yellowstone National Park is allowed. Current law allows both hunting and trapping of a specific number of wolves and mountain lions. Trapping of assorted fur bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting. Both downhill skiing and cross-country skiing are popular in Montana, which has 15 developed downhill ski areas open to the public,  including:.
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Big Sky Resort and Whitefish Mountain Resort are destination resorts , while the remaining areas do not have overnight lodging at the ski area, though several host restaurants and other amenities. Montana also has millions of acres open to cross-country skiing on nine of its national forests plus in Glacier National Park.
In addition to cross-country trails at most of the downhill ski areas, there are also 13 private cross-country skiing resorts. Snowmobiling is popular in Montana which boasts over miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter. Montana is ranked as the least obese state in the U. During the age of the Copper Kings , each Montana copper company had its own newspaper. This changed in when Lee Enterprises bought several Montana newspapers.
Railroads have been an important method of transportation in Montana since the s. Historically, the state was traversed by the main lines of three east-west transcontinental routes: the Milwaukee Road , the Great Northern , and the Northern Pacific. Today, the BNSF Railway is the state's largest railroad, its main transcontinental route incorporating the former Great Northern main line across the state.
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Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport is the busiest airport in the state of Montana, surpassing Billings Logan International Airport in the spring of Eight smaller communities have airports designated for commercial service under the Essential Air Service program. Historically, U. Route 10 was the primary east-west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state. Still the state's most important east-west travel corridor, the route is today served by Interstate 90 and Interstate 94 which roughly follow the same route as the Northern Pacific.
Routes 2 and 12 and Montana Highway also traverse the entire state from east to west. Montana's only north-south Interstate Highway is Interstate Other major north-south highways include U.
Routes 87 , 89 , 93 and Montana and South Dakota are the only states to share a land border which is not traversed by a paved road. Highway , the primary paved route between the two, passes through the northeast corner of Wyoming between Montana and South Dakota. Montana is governed by a constitution. The first constitution was drafted by a constitutional convention in , in preparation for statehood.outer-edge-design.com/components/prey/3319-what-is.php
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Ninety percent of its language came from an constitution which was never acted upon by Congress for national political reasons. The constitution mimicked the structure of the United States Constitution , as well as outlining almost the same civil and political rights for citizens. However, the Montana constitution significantly restricted the power of state government, the legislature was much more powerful than the executive branch, and the jurisdiction of the District Courts very specifically described.
In , Montana voters approved the call for a state constitutional convention. A new constitution was drafted, which made the legislative and executive branches much more equal in power and which was much less prescriptive in outlining powers, duties, and jurisdictions. The constitution was narrowly approved, , to ,, and declared ratified on June 20, Three issues which the constitutional convention were unable to resolve were submitted to voters simultaneously with the proposed constitution.
Voters approved the legalization of gambling, a bicameral legislature, and retention of the death penalty. The constitution has been amended 31 times as of Extensive new constitutional rights for victims of crime were approved in The constitution requires that voters determine every 20 years whether to hold a new constitutional convention.
Voters turned down a new convention in 84 percent no  and again in Montana has three branches of state government: Legislative, executive, and judicial. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor. The Governor is Steve Bullock , a Democrat elected in There are also nine other statewide elected offices in the executive branch: Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Auditor who also serves as Commissioner of Securities and Insurance , and Superintendent of Public Instruction.
There are five Public Service Commissioners, who are elected on a regional basis. The Public Service Commission's jurisdiction is statewide. Elementary and secondary education are overseen by the Office of Public Instruction led by the elected Superintendent of Public Instruction , in cooperation with the governor-appointed Board of Public Education.
Higher education is overseen by a governor-appointed Board of Regents, which in turn appoints a Commissioner of Higher Education. The Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education acts in an executive capacity on behalf of the regents, and oversees the state-run Montana University System. Montana is an Alcoholic beverage control state. It is one of five states to have no sales tax. The Montana Legislature is bicameral, and consists of the member Montana Senate and the member Montana House of Representatives.
The legislature meets in the Montana State Capitol in Helena in odd-numbered years for 90 days, beginning the first weekday of the year. The deadline for a legislator to introduce a general bill is the 40th legislative day. The deadline for a legislator to introduce an appropriations, revenue, or referenda bill is the 62nd legislative day. Senators serve four-year terms, while Representatives serve two-year terms. All members are limited to serving no more than eight years in a single year period.
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The Courts of Montana are established by the Constitution of Montana. The constitution requires the establishment of a Montana Supreme Court and Montana District Courts , and permits the legislature to establish Justice Courts , City Courts , Municipal Courts , and other inferior courts such as the legislature sees fit to establish. The Montana Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the Montana court system. The constitution of provided for the election of no fewer than three Supreme Court justices, and one Chief Justice.
Each court member served a six-year term.
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The legislature increased the number of justices to five in The constitution lengthened the term of office to eight years, and established the minimum number of justices at five. It allowed the legislature to increase the number of justices by two, which the legislature did in The Montana Supreme Court has the authority to declare acts of the legislature and executive unconstitutional under either the Montana or U.
Its decisions may be appealed directly to the U. Supreme Court.
The Clerk of the Supreme Court is also an elected position, and serves a six-year term. Neither justices nor the clerk are term limited. Montana District Courts are the courts of general jurisdiction in Montana.
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There are no intermediate appellate courts. District Courts have jurisdiction primarily over most civil cases, cases involving a monetary claim against the state, felony criminal cases, probate, and cases at law and in equity. When so authorized by the legislature, actions of executive branch agencies may be appealed directly to a District Court.
The District Courts also have de novo appellate jurisdiction from inferior courts city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts , and oversee naturalization proceedings. District Court judges are elected, and serve six-year terms. They are not term limited. There are 22 judicial districts in Montana, served by 56 District Courts and 46 District Court judges. The District Courts suffer from excessive workload, and the legislature has struggled to find a solution to the problem. They are overseen by District Court judges.
They consist of a chief probation officer, one or more juvenile probation officers, and support staff. Youth Courts have jurisdiction over misdemeanor and felony acts committed by those charged as a juvenile under the law. There is a Youth Court in every judicial district, and decisions of the Youth Court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. There is a single Workers' Compensation Court. It has a single judge, appointed by the governor. The court hears cases arising under the Montana Workers' Compensation Act, and is the court of original jurisdiction for reviews of orders and regulations issued by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry.
Decisions of the court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. The court employs 12 permanent special masters. The Water Court adjudicates water rights claims under the Montana Water Use Act of , and has statewide jurisdiction. District Courts have the authority to enforce decisions of the Water Court, but only the Montana Supreme Court has the authority to review decisions of the Water Court. From to , elections for judicial office in Montana were partisan. Beginning in , these elections became nonpartisan. The Montana Supreme Court struck down the nonpartisan law in on technical grounds, but a new law was enacted in which barred political parties from endorsing, making contributions to, or making expenditures on behalf of or against judicial candidates.
In , the U. Bullock , U. Although candidates must remain nonpartisan, spending by partisan entities is now permitted. Constitution provides each state with two Senators. Montana's two U. Constitution provides each state with a single Representative, with additional representatives apportioned based on population. From statehood in until , Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by a single representative, elected at-large.
Montana received a second representative in , following the census and reapportionment. Both members, however, were still elected at-large.
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Beginning in , Montana moved to district, rather than at-large, elections for its two House members. This created Montana's 1st congressional district in the west and Montana's 2nd congressional district in the east. In the reapportionment following the census, Montana lost one of its House seats. The remaining seat was again elected at-large. Greg Gianforte is the current officeholder.